MuleSoft Interview Questions with Answers Part 1

1. YAML configuration files and Properties files in MuleSoft 
The Configuration Properties supports both YAML configuration files and Properties files. The recommended approach is to use a YAML configuration files, because it allows the addition of type validations and autocompletion.

2. Why APIs are abstraction layer?
APIs serve as a layer of abstraction between the data or function being provided and the logic required to complete and run a task at the source. In other words, your software just needs to know how to connect to the other system, not how the other system works.

3. Operational datastore
An operational data store (or "ODS") is used for operational reporting and as a source of data for the Enterprise Data Warehouse (EDW). It is a complementary element to an EDW in a decision support landscape and is used for operational reporting, controls and decision making, as opposed to the EDW, which is used for tactical and strategic decision support.

An ODS is a database designed to integrate data from multiple sources for additional operations on the data, for reporting, controls and operational decision support. Unlike a production master data store, the data is not passed back to operational systems. It may be passed for further operations and to the data warehouse for reporting.

An ODS should not be confused with an enterprise data hub (EDH). An operational data store will take transactional data from one or more production systems and loosely integrate it, in some respects, it is still subject-oriented, integrated and time-variant, but without the volatility constraints. This integration is mainly achieved through the use of EDW structures and content.

An ODS is not an intrinsic part of an EDH solution, although an EDH may be used to subsume some of the processing performed by an ODS and the EDW. An EDH is a broker of data. An ODS is certainly not.

Because the data originates from multiple sources, the integration often involves cleaning, resolving redundancy and checking against business rules for integrity. An ODS is usually designed to contain low-level or atomic (indivisible) data (such as transactions and prices) with a limited history that is captured "real-time" or "near real-time" as opposed to the much greater volumes of data stored in the data warehouse generally on a less-frequent basis.

General use
The general purpose of an ODS is to integrate data from disparate source systems in a single structure, using data integration technologies like data virtualization, data federation, or extract, transform, and load (ETL). This will allow operational access to the data for operational reporting, master data or reference data management.

An ODS is not a replacement or substitute for a data warehouse or for a data hub but in turn could become a source.

4. Difference between map and mapObject in DataWeave?
map to go through the elements in the "books" array.

mapObject to go through the keys and values in each of the objects of the array.

5. Define Leaf node
In computer science, a 'tree' is a widely used abstract data type (ADT)—or data structure implementing this ADT—that simulates a hierarchical tree structure, with a root value and subtrees of children with a parent node, represented as a set of linked nodes.

A node is a structure which may contain a value or condition, or represent a separate data structure (which could be a tree of its own). Each node in a tree has zero or more child nodes, which are below it in the tree (by convention, trees are drawn growing downwards). A node that has a child is called the child's parent node (or ancestor node, or superior). A node has at most one parent.

An internal node (also known as an inner node, 'inode' for short, or branch node) is any node of a tree that has child nodes. Similarly, an external node (also known as an outer node, leaf node, or terminal node) is any node that does not have child nodes.

6. OAuth 2.0
OAuth 2.0 is an open protocol that enables authentication, authorization, and secure data sharing between applications through the exchange of tokens.

7. API, Proxy and Gateway
An API is an interface that makes it easy for one application to 'consume' capabilities or data from another application. By defining stable, simplified entry points to application logic and data, APIs enable developers to easily access and reuse application logic built by other developers.

A proxy is something that acts as an intermediary, making requests on behalf of something else. A proxy can add some capabilities, like some basic security and monitoring, it really can’t do anything particularly sophisticated with content or routing, let alone transformation, mediation, or orchestration.

Most large businesses, organizations, and universities these days use a proxy server. This is a server that all computers on the local network have to go through before accessing information on the Internet. By using a proxy server, an organization can improve the network performance and filter what users connected to the network can access.

An API gateway on the other hand provides a much richer set of capabilities. When you use an API gateway to expose an API, you don’t even need to start with an API. You can take multiple existing services of varying types, and use the gateway to construct a modern, well-structured API. The gateway, of course, still offers the same capabilities that an API proxy would offer for security and monitoring, but it takes these and other capabilities much further.

A gateway is a hardware device that acts as a "gate" between two networks. It may be a router, firewall, server, or other device that enables traffic to flow in and out of the network.

8. What is Transport Layer Security (TLS)
Transport Layer Security (TLS) is a protocol that provides authentication, privacy, and data integrity between two communicating computer applications. It's the most widely-deployed security protocol used today and is used for web browsers and other applications that require data to be securely exchanged over a network, such as web browsing sessions, file transfers, VPN connections, remote desktop sessions, and voice over IP (VoIP).

Google Chrome
Connections are automatically negotiated at the highest grade.
If you are using Google Chrome version 22 or greater, TLS 1.1 is automatically supported.  TLS 1.1 & 1.2 are automatically enabled from version 29 onwards.

Microsoft Internet Explorer
Open Internet Explorer
From the menu bar, click Tools >  Internet Options > Advanced tab
Scroll down to Security category, manually check the option box for Use TLS 1.1 and Use TLS 1.2

Servers
Registry path: HKLM SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\SecurityProviders\SCHANNEL\Protocols

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