Salesforce interview questions and answers

1. What is the difference between custom controller and extension?

Custom Controller: A custom controller is an Apex class that implements all of the logic for a page without leveraging a standard controller. Use custom controllers when you want your Visualforce page to run entirely in system mode, which does not enforce the permissions and field-level security of the current user.  
Controller extension: controller extension is an Apex class that extends the functionality of a standard or custom controller.
Although custom controllers and controller extension classes execute in system mode and thereby ignore user permissions and field-level security, you can choose whether they respect a user's organization-wide defaults, role hierarchy, and sharing rules by using the with sharing keywords in the class definition.

2. What are different kinds of reports?

1. Tabular: Tabular reports are the simplest and fastest way to look at data. Similar to a spreadsheet, they consist simply of an ordered set of fields in columns, with each matching record listed in a row. Tabular reports are best for creating lists of records or a list with a single grand total. They can't be used to create groups of data or charts, and can't be used in dashboards unless rows are limited. Examples include contact mailing lists and activity reports.
2. Summary: Summary reports are similar to tabular reports, but also allow users to group rows of data, view subtotals, and create charts. They can be used as the source report for dashboard components. Use this type for a report to show subtotals based on the value of a particular field or when you want to create a hierarchical list, such as all opportunities for your team, subtotaled by Stage and Owner. Summary reports with no groupings show as tabular reports on the report run page.
3. Matrix: Matrix reports are similar to summary reports but allow you to group and summarize data by both rows and columns. They can be used as the source report for dashboard components. Use this type for comparing related totals, especially if you have large amounts of data to summarize and you need to compare values in several different fields, or you want to look at data by date and by product, person, or geography. Matrix reports without at least one row and one column grouping show as summary reports on the report run page.
4. Joined: Joined reports let you create multiple report blocks that provide different views of your data. Each block acts like a “sub-report,” with its own fields, columns, sorting, and filtering. A joined report can even contain data from different report types.

3. What are different kinds of dashboard component?

1. Chart: Use a chart when you want to show data graphically.
2. Gauge: Use a gauge when you have a single value that you want to show within a range of custom values.
3. Metric: Use a metric when you have one key value to display.
  • Enter metric labels directly on components by clicking the empty text field next to the grand total.
  • Metric components placed directly above and below each other in a dashboard column are displayed together as a single component.
4. Table: Use a table to show a set of report data in column form.
5. Visualforce Page: Use a Visualforce page when you want to create a custom component or show information not available in another component type
6. Custom S-Control: Custom S-Controls can contain any type of content that you can display or run in a browser, for example, a Java applet, an ActiveX control, an Excel file, or a custom HTML Web form.

4. How to schedule a class in Apex?

To invoke Apex classes to run at specific times, first implement the Schedulable interface for the class, then specify the schedule using either the Schedule Apex page in the Salesforce user interface, or the System.schedule method.
After you implement a class with the Schedulable interface, use the System.Schedule method to execute it. The scheduler runs as system: all classes are executed, whether the user has permission to execute the class or not.
The System.Schedule method takes three arguments: a name for the job, an expression used to represent the time and date the job is scheduled to run, and the name of the class.
Salesforce only adds the process to the queue at the scheduled time. Actual execution may be delayed based on service availability. The System.Schedule method uses the user's time zone for the basis of all schedules. You can only have 25 classes scheduled at one time.

5. What is PermissionSet?

PermissionSet represents a set of permissions that’s used to grant additional access to one or more users without changing their profile or reassigning profiles. You can use permission sets to grant access, but not to deny access.
Every PermissionSet is associated with a user license. You can only assign permission sets to users who have the same user license that’s associated with the permission set. If you want to assign similar permissions to users with different licenses, create multiple permission sets with the same permissions, but with different licenses.

6. What are governor limits in

Governor limits are runtime limits enforced by the Apex runtime engine. Because Apex runs in a shared, multitenant environment, the Apex runtime engine strictly enforces a number of limits to ensure that code does not monopolize shared resources. Types of limits that Apex enforces are resources like memory, database resources, number of script statements to avoid infinite loops, and number of records being processed. If code exceeds a limit, the associated governor issues a runtime exception that cannot be handled thereby terminating the request.

7. What are custom settings?

Custom settings are similar to custom objects and enable application developers to create custom sets of data, as well as create and associate custom data for an organization, profile, or specific user. All custom settings data is exposed in the application cache, which enables efficient access without the cost of repeated queries to the database. This data can then be used by formula fields, validation rules, Apex, and the SOAP API.

There are two types of custom settings:
List Custom Settings
A type of custom setting that provides a reusable set of static data that can be accessed across your organization. If you use a particular set of data frequently within your application, putting that data in a list custom setting streamlines access to it. Data in list settings does not vary with profile or user, but is available organization-wide. Because the data is cached, access is low-cost and efficient: you don't have to use SOQL queries that count against your governor limits.
Hierarchy Custom Settings
A type of custom setting that uses a built-in hierarchical logic that lets you “personalize” settings for specific profiles or users. The hierarchy logic checks the organization, profile, and user settings for the current user and returns the most specific, or “lowest,” value. In the hierarchy, settings for an organization are overridden by profile settings, which, in turn, are overridden by user settings.

8. What are different portals in
Partner Portal:
A partner portal allows partner users to log in to through a separate website than non-partner users. Partner users can only view & edit data that has been made available to them. An organization can have multiple partner portals.

Customer Portal:
Customer Portal provides an online support channel for customers allowing them to resolve their inquiries without contacting a customer service representative. An organization can have multiple customer portals.

9. What is the use of Sites? Sites enables you to create public websites and applications that are directly integrated with your Salesforce organization without requiring users to log in with a username and password. You can publicly expose any information stored in your organization through a branded URL of your choice. Sites are hosted on servers and built on native Visualforce pages. You can user authentication to a public site using customer portal.

10. What actions can be performed using Workflows?
1. Email Alert:
Email alerts are workflow and approval actions that are generated using an email template by a workflow rule or approval process and sent to designated recipients, either Salesforce users or others. Workflow alerts can be sent to any user or contact, as long as they have a valid email address.
2. Field Update:
Field updates are workflow and approval actions that specify the field you want updated and the new value for it. Depending on the type of field, you can choose to apply a specific value, make the value blank, or calculate a value based on a formula you create.
3. Task:
Assigns a task to a user you specify. You can specify the Subject, Status, Priority, and Due Dateof the task. Tasks are workflow and approval actions that are triggered by workflow rules or approval processes.
4. Outbound Message:
An outbound message is a workflow, approval, or milestone action that sends the information you specify to an endpoint you designate, such as an external service. An outbound message sends the data in the specified fields in the form of a SOAP message to the endpoint.

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